LabBook September 19, 2014

Ernst Lengyel, MD, PhD, speaks during the Arthur L. and Lee G. Herbst Professor of Obstetrics/Gynecology named professorship lecture series at the Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery on September 15, 2014. (Photo by Andrew Nelles)

Ernst Lengyel, MD, PhD, speaks during the Arthur L. and Lee G. Herbst Professor of Obstetrics/Gynecology named professorship lecture series at the Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery on September 15, 2014. (Photo by Andrew Nelles)

This week’s rundown of recent research publications of note from University of Chicago scientists and physicians:

Diet, gut microbes, and genetics in immune function: can we leverage our current knowledge to achieve better outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases?: Vanessa Leone, Candace Cham and Eugene Chang — Current Opinion in Immunology

From the abstract: “Autoimmune disorders, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are increasing at an alarming frequency. While the exact cause remains elusive, studies have examined how the immune system is shaped in the context of genetic susceptibility, gut microbes, and environmental pressures, including dietary intake. Shifts towards a Westernized high fat, high carbohydrate diet result in changes to gut microbiota structure and function that may aid in triggering and perpetuating autoimmunity by promoting the emergence of pathobionts leading to altered immune activation. This review summarizes our current understanding of dietary-induced changes in gut microbiota on autoimmunity in the context of IBD. We provide a framework for leveraging this knowledge to develop new dietary, microbial and immune-based modulation strategies for individualized risk assessment and improving clinical outcomes.”

Fecal microbiota transplantation as therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis: Ruben Colman and David Rubin — Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis

From the abstract: “Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained interest as a novel treatment option for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While publications describing FMT as therapy for IBD have more than doubled since 2012, research that investigates FMT treatment efficacy has been scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of FMT as treatment for patients with IBD … This analysis suggests that FMT is a safe, but variably efficacious treatment for IBD. More randomized controlled trials are needed and should investigate frequency of FMT administration, donor selection and standardization of microbiome analysis.”

Naked bodies, naked genomes: the special (but not exceptional) nature of genomic information: Daniel Sulmasy — Genetics in Medicine

From the abstract: “Genetic exceptionalism, the view that genomic information is different from other types of sensitive information and deserves exceptional types of protections, has been roundly criticized. However, the public still expresses special fears about the access others might have to their genomic information. In this article, it is argued that there may be a basis for the public perception that genomic information is special, even if it cannot be said that policies could or should be enacted to protect the privacy and confidentiality of genomic information that would be exceptional relative to the protections one would enact to protect other types of sensitive information.”

Challenges to School-Located Vaccination: Lessons Learned: including Heather Limper, Jennifer Burns, LaKesha Lloyd, Jennifer Atilano and Kenneth Alexander — Pediatrics

From the abstract: “School-located vaccination (SLV) has a long history in the United States and has successfully contributed to lower morbidity and mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases.1 Historically, SLV efforts, which tended to be single-vaccine programs intended to provide catch-up immunization to a defined school-age cohort or were implemented in response to an outbreak, were unfunded, funded by local health department, or were funded by industry or federal grants. The growing palette of vaccines recommended for routine use in adolescents along with limited success of office-based adolescent immunization create a compelling argument for the creation of financially sustainable SLV programs.”

About Matt Wood (468 Articles)
Matt Wood is a senior science writer for the University of Chicago Medicine and editor of the Science Life blog.
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