LabBook November 14, 2014

New executive Vikram Acharya suited up as Hearty the American Heart Association mascot for a stroll through the medical campus yesterday. The big-hearted Vice President of Clinical & Procedural Services extended his rounds to Comer Children's Hospital, where the kids and staff members hugged and fist-bumped him.

New executive Vikram Acharya suited up as Hearty the American Heart Association mascot for a stroll through the medical campus yesterday. The big-hearted Vice President of Clinical & Procedural Services extended his rounds to Comer Children’s Hospital, where the kids and staff members hugged and fist-bumped him.

This week’s rundown of recent research publications of note from University of Chicago scientists and physicians:

Expression of the EPHB4 receptor tyrosine kinase in head and neck and renal malignancies – implications for solid tumors and potential for therapeutic inhibition: including Benjamin Ferguson, Mark Lingen and Ravi Salgia — Growth Factors

From the abstract: “Solid malignancies are often characterized by overexpression of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) against which many targeted therapies are currently in use and in active development. EPHB4 has recently emerged as a frequently overexpressed RTK in many types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate expression patterns of EPHB4 in two solid malignancies: squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), by immunohistochemical analysis … Taken together, these results suggest a possible role for EPHB4 as a therapeutic target in these malignancies.”

Prebiotics and probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in children: including Stefano Guandalini and Dagmara Moscoso — Beneficial Microbes

From the abstract: “Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated to a change in stool consistency or frequency, include low-grade inflammation and intestinal microbiota changes. Few and disappointing data are available for prebiotics. A few controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics are instead available with favourable effects, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size … The role for probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) appears logical: the endogenous intestinal microbiota plays a central role in their development, and various probiotics have been found effective in animal models of IBD. However, research in humans has been overall quite limited, and it would seem that after a phase of intense research in the first decade of this century, the pace has slowed down, with fewer clinical trials been published in the past 2-3 years.”

A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex: including David Freedman — Nature Neuroscience

From the abstract: “Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.”

About Matt Wood (479 Articles)
Matt Wood is a senior science writer for the University of Chicago Medicine and editor of the Science Life blog.
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